TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction xxi

I Quantum Computing Primer 1

1 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 3

What is Quantum Mechanics? 3

Quantum is Counterintuitive 4

Quantum Mechanics is Real 5

The Basic Properties of Quantum Mechanics 8

Photons and Quantum Mechanics 8

Photoelectric Effect 9

Wave-Particle Duality 10

Probability Principle 14

Uncertainty Principle 17

Spin States and Charges 20

Quantum Tunneling 20

Superposition 21

Observer Effect 22

No-Cloning Theorem 24

Spooky Entanglement 24

Decoherence 25

Quantum Examples in Our World Today 27

For Additional Information 28

Summary 29

2 Introduction to Quantum Computers 31

How are Quantum Computers Different? 31

Traditional Computers Use Bits 31

Quantum Computers Use Qubits 33

Quantum Computers are Not Ready for Prime Time Yet 37

Quantum Will Reign Supreme Soon 38

Quantum Computers Improve Qubits Using Error Correction 39

Types of Quantum Computers 44

Superconducting Quantum Computers 44

Quantum Annealing Computers 45

Universal Quantum Computers 47

Topological Quantum Computers 49

Microsoft Majorana Fermion Computers 50

Ion Trap Quantum Computers 51

Quantum Computers in the Cloud 53

Non-U.S. Quantum Computers 53

Components of a Quantum Computer 54

Quantum Software 55

Quantum Stack 55

Quantum National Guidance 56

National Policy Guidance 56

Money Grants and Investments 56

Other Quantum Information Science Besides Computers 57

For More Information 58

Summary 58

3 How Can Quantum Computing Break Today’s Cryptography? 59

Cryptography Basics 59

Encryption 59

Integrity Hashing 72

Cryptographic Uses 73

How Quantum Computers Can Break Cryptography 74

Cutting Time 74

Quantum Algorithms 76

What Quantum Can and Can’t Break 79

Still Theoretical 82

Summary 83

4 When Will the Quantum Crypto Break Happen? 85

It Was Always “10 Years from Now” 85

Quantum Crypto Break Factors 86

Is Quantum Mechanics Real? 86

Are Quantum Computers Real? 87

Is Superposition Real? 87

Is Peter Shor’s Algorithm Real? 88

Do We Have Enough Stable Qubits? 88

Quantum Resources and Competition 89

Do We Have Steady Improvement? 89

Expert Opinions 90

When the Quantum Cyber Break Will Happen 90

Timing Scenarios 90

When Should You Prepare? 93

Breakout Scenarios 95

Stays in the Realm of Nation-States for a Long Time 95

Used by Biggest Companies 97

Mass Proliferation 97

Most Likely Breakout Scenario 97

Summary 98

5 What Will a Post-Quantum World Look Like? 99

Broken Applications 99

Weakened Hashes and Symmetric Ciphers 100

Broken Asymmetric Ciphers 103

Weakened and Broken Random Number Generators 103

Weakened or Broken Dependent Applications 104

Quantum Computing 114

Quantum Computers 114

Quantum Processors 115

Quantum Clouds 115

Quantum Cryptography Will Be Used 116

Quantum Perfect Privacy 116

Quantum Networking Arrives 117

Quantum Applications 117

Better Chemicals and Medicines 118

Better Batteries 118

True Artificial Intelligence 119

Supply Chain Management 120

Quantum Finance 120

Improved Risk Management 120

Quantum Marketing 120

Better Weather Prediction 121

Quantum Money 121

Quantum Simulation 122

More Precise Military and Weapons 122

Quantum Teleportation 122

Summary 126

II Preparing for the Quantum Break 127

6 Quantum-Resistant Cryptography 129

NIST Post-Quantum Contest 129

NIST Security Strength Classifications 132

PKE vs. KEM 133

Formal Indistinguishability Assurances 134

Key and Ciphertext Sizes 135

Types of Post-Quantum Algorithms 136

Code-Based Cryptography 136

Hash-Based Cryptography 137

Lattice-Based Cryptography 138

Multivariate Cryptography 140

Supersingular Elliptic Curve Isogeny Cryptography 140

Zero-Knowledge Proof 141

Symmetric Key Quantum Resistance 142

Quantum-Resistant Asymmetric Encryption Ciphers 143

BIKE 145

Classic McEliece 145

CRYSTALS-Kyber 146

FrodoKEM 146

HQC 147

LAC 148

LEDAcrypt 148

NewHope 149

NTRU 149

NTRU Prime 150

NTS-KEM 150

ROLLO 151

Round5 151

RQC 151

SABER 152

SIKE 152

ThreeBears 153

General Observations on PKE and KEM Key and Ciphertext Sizes 155

Quantum-Resistant Digital Signatures 156

CRYSTALS-Dilithium 156

FALCON 157

GeMSS 158

LUOV 158

MQDSS 159

Picnic 159

qTESLA 160

Rainbow 160

SPHINCS+ 161

General Observations on Signature Key and Sizes 162

Caution Advised 164

A Lack of Standards 164

Performance Concerns 165

Lack of Verified Protection 165

For Additional Information 166

Summary 166

7 Quantum Cryptography 167

Quantum RNGs 168

Random is Not Always Random 168

Why is True Randomness So Important? 170

Quantum-Based RNGs 172

Quantum Hashes and Signatures 177

Quantum Hashes 177

Quantum Digital Signatures 178

Quantum Encryption Ciphers 180

Quantum Key Distribution 181

Summary 188

8 Quantum Networking 189

Quantum Network Components 189

Transmission Media 189

Distance vs. Speed 191

Point-to-Point 192

Trusted Repeaters 193

True Quantum Repeaters 194

Quantum Network Protocols 196

Quantum Network Applications 199

More Secure Networks 199

Quantum Computing Cloud 200

Better Time Syncing 200

Prevent Jamming 201

Quantum Internet 202

Other Quantum Networks 203

For More Information 204

Summary 204

9 Preparing Now 207

Four Major Post-Quantum Mitigation Phases 207

Stage 1: Strengthen Current Solutions 207

Stage 2: Move to Quantum-Resistant Solutions 211

Stage 3: Implement Quantum-Hybrid Solutions 213

Stage 4: Implement Fully Quantum Solutions 214

The Six Major Post-Quantum Mitigation Project Steps 214

Step 1: Educate 215

Step 2: Create a Plan 220

Step 3: Collect Data 225

Step 4: Analyze 226

Step 5: Take Action/Remediate 228

Step 6: Review and Improve 230

Summary 230

Appendix: Additional Quantum Resources 231

Index 239