This practical reference offers a unified approach to phaselock technology, spanning large and small signaltonoise applications. It takes you from continuoustime systems through hybrid timesampled systems to fractionalN synthesis techniques. The book also looks at bitsynchronization in the context of phasedlock loop methods. You find expanded coverage of frequency synthesis that examines techniques used to develop RFICs for WiMAX and WCDMA applications.
The book includes numerous computer simulation techniques that enable you to analyze phaselocked systems and create accurate simulation methods for noise. You get a precise, detailed explanation at DeltaSigma techniques that give you a clearer understanding of fractionalN synthesis and let you develop your own DeltaSigma methods. Moreover, this unique resource gives you new insight into how phase noise affects biterror rate and the performance of transmitters and receivers. More than 1,500 equations and figures support key topics throughout the book.
 Frequency and Time Control Systems: A HighLevel Perspective—Frequency and Time Domain Perspectives. PhaseLocked Loops. Control System Perspective (High SNR). Estimation Theoretic Perspective Low (SNR). Example Applications. References.
 System Guidelines and Design Formulas—Synthesizer Architectures. Wireless Systems. A/D and D/A Conversion. Frequency Mixers, Dividers, and Multipliers. Summary of ContinuousTime Classic Type2 SecondOrder PLLs. Summary of ContinuousTime Classic Type2 FourthOrder PLL Design Formulas. Summary of ContinuousTime 9 Decibel per Octave PLL Design Formulas. Summary of Hybrid PhaseLocked Loop Design Formulas. Summary of DiscreteTime PhaseLocked Loop Design Formulas. Summary of RF Synthesis Design Formulas. Summary of ADC and DAC Clock Design Formula. Summary of Bit Synchronizer Design Formulas. Summary of Analog Filter Design Formulas. Summary of Oscillator Design Formula. Summary of Phase Noise Effects on Digital Communications Systems. Time and Frequency Control Related Terminology. References.
 Fundamental Limits—Bessel Functions (FM). Cauchy Schwartz Inequality. Chernoff Bound. CramerRao Bound. Fano Broadband Matching Theorem. Leeson/Scherer Model. Matched Filter Bound. Nyquist Sampling Theorem. PaleyWerner Condition. Shannon RateDistortion Theorem. Strong Law of Large Numbers. TimeBandwidth Product. Uncertainty Principle. Weak Law of Large Numbers. WeinerKhinchine Theorem. References.
 Detailed System Performance Loss Analysis—Phase Noise Origins. Local Oscillator Phase Noise Impact Upon Transmit and Receive Spectra. Clock Noise Impact upon ADC and DAC Performance. Local Oscillator Phase Noise Impact upon Digital Communication Error Rate Performance. References.
 General Noise Theory—Phase Noise First Principles. Power Spectral Density Concept. StationaRY VERSUS Cyclostationary Proceses. Modeling Phase Noise Processes. Discrete Spurious Contaminations. Local Oscillator Phase Noise Effects on Receive and Transmit Spectra. Memoryless Nonlinearity Effects on Transmit Spectra. References.
 Fundamental Concepts for ContinuousTime Systems—PhaseLocked Basics. PseudoContinuous Phase Detector Models. Modeling Time Delays in ContinuousTime Systems. FrequencyDomain Analysis. Transient Response Evaluation for ContinuousTime Systems. References.
 Fundamental Concepts for SampledData Control Systems—SampledData Control System Basics. FrequencyDomain Analysis. Stability Assessment. TimeDomain Analysis. ClosedForm SampleData System Results. Phase Noise Assessments with SampledData Systems. AppendixDerivation of Closed Form Results. References.
 FractionalN Frequency Synthesizers—AnalogBased Correction. ÄÓBased Correction. ÄÓ Architectures. Caveats of DeltaSigma FractionalN Synthesizers Dithering and Randomization Techniques. References.
 Oscillators—Negative Resistance Oscillator Model. Leeson’s Model. Extensions and Implications of Leeson’s Model. Nonlinear Oscillator Models. Injection Locking. LoadPulling. Oscillator Pushing. Oscillator Coupling. VCO Tuning Characteristics. Differential Tuning Oscillators. Multiband Methods. Oscillator Topologies.
 Bit Synchronization and Clock Recovery—Baseband Systems. Wireless Systems. References.
James A. Crawford is a consultant for AM1, LLC, based in San Diego, California. At AM1, he has performed technology development and technical management of communications systems and products for commercial and consumer applications. The author of Frequency Synthesizer Design Handbook (Artech House, 1994), he holds a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of NebraskaLincoln and an M.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Southern California.
